Objectives and strategic aspects
The final goal of the project was:
to provide the means to increase the number of energy-efficient buildings that are at the same time healthy, thus decreasing the energy use by buildings and consequently resulting in a reduction of CO 2 emissions from primary energy used for heating and ventilation.
From the perspective of the occupants of a building, the ideal situation is an indoor environment that satisfies all occupants (i.e. they have no complaints) and does not unnecessarily increase the risk or severity of illness or injury. The current situation is far from this ideal and the potential for improving the indoor environment is high.
The potential for energy reduction in buildings is also quite high. It is possible to find office and housing buildings in the Nordic latitudes with the same level of annual energy consumption (mostly for heating) of the order of 150 kWh/m2year, while in the Mediterranean area there are buildings consuming more than twice for offices (heating and cooling) and less than one tenth for housing. However, there are cases at high latitudes where figures of around 50 kWh/m2year have been reached.
General Results and Conclusions
The questions to which answers have been sought within the framework of the HOPE project were:
- What is a healthy building and what is an energy-efficient building?
- What is an energy-efficient healthy building?
- Are buildings with energy saving measures energy-efficient? And what is the health status of buildings with energy saving measures as compared to buildings without energy saving measures?
- How can we assure that buildings are healthy and energy-efficient at the same time?
Healthy and comfortable buildings do not necessarily require much energy, and can have a limited impact on the environment. Smart managers, architects and engineers construct and operate buildings in a way that both good indoor environment and low energy consumption can be achieved. Good design is essential to achieve these objectives. By contrast, expensive measures to improve the indoor environment are sometimes counterproductive: even when technical requirements (temperature, air flow rates, etc.) are met, occupants do not feel well.
Download the public final report
- Chrit Cox et al., 2005, Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Buildings, Final Report
- Bluyssen, P.M. and Loomans, M.G.L.C., 2003, A framework for performance criteria of healthy and energy-efficient buildings, Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore.
- Bluyssen, P.M. et al.., 2003, European Project HOPE (health optimization protocol for energy efficient buildings), Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore.
- Maroni M. et al., 2003, Performance criteria for healthy buildings, Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore.
- Roulet, C.-A., Johner, N., Flourentzous, F., Greuter, G., 2003, Multi-criteria Analysis Methodology of Health, IEQ and Energy Use for Sustainable Buildings, CISBAT, October 8-9, 2003, Lausanne, Switzerland. Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore.
- Roulet, C.-A., Johner, N., Oostra, B., Foradini, F., 2005, Multi-criteria analysis of health, comfort and energy-efficiency of buildings, Indoor Air 2005
- Roulet, C.-A., Johner, N., Oostra, B., Foradini, F., 2005, Correlations between SBS, perceived comfort, energy use and other building characteristics in European office and residential buildings, Indoor Air 2005
- Roulet, C.-A., Johner, N., Oostra, B., Foradini, F., 2005, Buildings, indoor environment, multicriteria analysis, energy, Indoor Air 2005